giubbotti peuterey donna Save the Bees
Honey bees wild and domestic perform about 80 percent of all pollination worldwide. A single bee colony can pollinate 300 million flowers each day. Grains are primarily pollinated by the wind, but fruits, nuts and vegetablesare pollinated by bees. Seventy out of the top 100 human food crops which supply about 90 percent of the world nutrition are pollinated by bees.
the last four years, the chemical industry has spent $11.2 million ona PR initiativeto say it not their fault, so we know whose fault it is.
The systemic nature of the problem makes it complex, but not impenetrable. Scientists know that bees are dying from a variety of factors pesticides, drought, habitat destruction, nutrition deficit, air pollution, global warmingand more.
Worker bees (females) live about six weeks in summer and several months in the winter. Colonies produce new worker bees continuously during the spring and summer, and then reproduction slows during the winter. Typically, a bee hive or colony will decline by 5 10 percent over the winter, and replace those lost bees in the spring. In a bad year, a bee colony might lose 15 20 percent of its bees. National Agricultural Statisticsshow a honey bee decline from about 6 million hives in 1947 to 2.4 million hives in 2008, a 60 percent reduction.
The number of working bee colonies per hectare provides a critical metric of crop health. The bees cannot keep pace with the winter die off rates and habitat loss.
Pesticides and Bees
Biologists have found more than 150 different chemical residues in bee pollen, a deadly cocktail according to University of California apiculturist Eric Mussen. The chemical companies Bayer, Syngenta, BASF, Dow, DuPont and Monsanto shrug their shoulders at the systemic complexity, as if the mystery were too complicated. They advocate no change in pesticide policy. After all, selling poisons to the world farmers is profitable.
Furthermore, wild bee habitat shrinks every year as industrial agribusiness converts grasslands and forest into mono culture farms, which are then contaminated with pesticides. To reverse the world bee decline, we need to fix our dysfunctional and destructive agricultural system.
Solutions That Save the Bees
Common sense actions canrestore and protect the world bees. Here a strong start:
Ban the seven most dangerous pesticides. The nation of Bhutan has led the world in adopting a 100 percent organic farming policy. Mexico has banned genetically modified corn to protect its native corn varieties. Eight European countries have banned genetically modifiedcrops and Hungary has burned more than1,000 acres of corn contaminated with genetically modifiedvarieties. In India, scientist Vandana Shiva and a network of small farmers have built an organic farming resistance to industrial agriculture over two decades.
Ecological, organic farming is nothing new. It is the way most farming has been done throughout human history. Ecological farming resists insect damage by avoiding large monocrops and preserving ecosystem diversity. Ecological farming restores soil nutrients with natural composting systems, avoids soil loss from wind and water erosion, and avoids pesticides and chemical fertilizers.
By restoring bee populations and healthier bees, ecological agriculture improves pollination, which in turn improves crop yields. Ecological farming takes advantage of the natural ecosystem services, water filtration, pollination, oxygen production, and disease and pest control.
Organic farmers have advocated better research and funding by industry, government, farmers, and the public to develop organic farming techniques, improve food production, and maintain ecological health. The revolution in farming would promote equitable diets around the world and support crops primarily for human consumption, avoiding crops for animal food and biofuels. decline, but the trend is clear and the response has beenmore appropriate. In Europe,Rabobankreported that annual European die offs have reached 30 35 percent and that the colonies per hectare count is down 25 percent. The nicotinoid pesticides used in soils, on foliage, and embedded in seeds persist at the core of the toxic pesticide cocktail found in bee hives.
AGreenpeace scientific reportidentifies seven priority bee killer pesticides including the three nicotine culprits plus clorpyriphos, cypermethrin, deltamethrin, and fipronil. The three neonicotinoids act on insect nervous systems. They accumulate in individual bees and within entire colonies, including the honey that bees feed to infant larvae. Bees that do not die outright, experience sub lethal systemic effects, development defects, weakness, and loss of orientation. The die off leaves fewer bees and weaker bees, who must work harder to produce honey in depleted wild habitats. These conditions create the nightmare formula for bee colony collapse.
Bayer makes and markets imidacloprid and clothianidin; Syngenta produces thiamethoxam. In 2009, the world market for these three toxins reached more than $2 billion. Syngenta, Bayer, Dow, Monsanto, and DuPont control nearly 100% of the world market for genetically modified pesticides, plants and seeds.
In 2012, a German court criminally charged Syngenta with perjury for concealing its own report showing that its genetically modified corn had killed livestock. Now, these corporate polluters are waging multi million euro campaigns to deny responsibility for bee colony collapse.
In May, the European Commission responded, adopting a two year ban on the three necotinoid pesticides, and later added the non neonicotinoid fibronil. Scientists will use the two years to assess the recovery rate of the bees and a longer term ban on these and other pesticides.